Geography: Hanoi is located in the Red River Delta, in the center of North Vietnam. It is encompassed by Thai Nguyen, Vinh Phuc provinces to the north, Hoa Binh and Ha Nam to the south, Bac Giang, Bac Ninh and Hung Yen provinces to the east, Hoa Binh and Phu Tho to the west.
Hanoi means "the hinterland between the rivers" (Ha: river, Noi: interior). Hanoi's territory is washed by the Red River (the portion of the Red River embracing Hanoi is approximately 40km long) and its tributaries, but there are some other rivers flowing through the capital, including Duong, Cau, Ca Lo, Day, Nhue, Tich, To Lich and Kim Nguu.
Climate: Hanoi is situated in a tropical monsoon zone with two main seasons. During the dry season, which lasts from October to April, it is cold and there is very little rainfall, except from January to March, when the weather is still cold but there is some light rain. The wet season, from May to September, is hot with heavy rains and storms. The average annual temperature is 23.2oC (73.7oF) and the average annual rainfall is 1,800mm. The average temperature in winter is 17.2oC (62.9oF), but can go down to 8oC (46.4oF). The average temperature in summer is 29.2oC (84.6oF), but can reach up to 39oC (102.2oF).
History: Hanoi is a sacred land of Vietnam.
In the 3rd century BC,
Co Loa (actually belonging to Dong Anh District) was chosen as the capital of
the Au Lac Nation of Thuc An Duong Vuong (the King Thuc). Hanoi later became the core of the resistance
movements against the Northern invasions. Located in the middle of the Red
River Delta, the town has gradually expanded to become a very populations and
rich residential center. At different periods, Hanoi
had been selected as the chief city of Vietnam under the Northern domination.In
the autumn of Canh Tuat lunar years (1010), Ly Thai To, the founder of the Ly
Dynasty, decided to transfer the capital from Hoa Lu to Dai La, and so he
rebaptized it Thang Long (Soaring Dragon). The year 1010 then became an
historical date for Hanoi
and for the whole country in general. For about a thousand years, the capital
was called Thang Long, then changing to Dong Do, Dong Kinh, and finally to Hanoi, in 1831. This
sacred piece of land thereafter continued to be the theatre of many fateful